Out here in Northern California, there are wonderful fall colors, wherever you look. You simply cannot miss it. What do you think about these three images, that I made last Thursday?
Enjoy photography like it is meant to be. Learn to do it right.
Out here in Northern California, there are wonderful fall colors, wherever you look. You simply cannot miss it. What do you think about these three images, that I made last Thursday?
This post is about photographing babies in a staged outdoor setting. If you are looking for a procedure to make candid unplanned photographs, please skip this post. While there are many ways to photograph babies in an outdoor setting, this is my favorite method.
Thank you for your attention. If you found this procedure to be useful or even if one aspect of this enhances your technique in any way, please let me know. Feel free to forward this post to anyone that might benefit from it.
This is a very common question from beginners. To many of them, the answer is not simple due to the large number of options available in the market today. Let me see if I can simplify and provide a simple path for beginners.
As a photography coach, I have trained hundreds of beginners from all over California and have talked to other photographers from all over the world. More than 95% of them use either a Nikon or a Canon DSLR. While any DSLR camera made today is capable of fine images, these two camera makers offer a full suite of lenses and accessory choices. Is one better than the other? In my opinion, no. They are both good, so pick one and stick with it.
You have a few more decisions to make. Even within the Nikon and Canon camera lines, there are many choices. How does one boil down to a particular camera body? This requires understanding of the key differences between the consumer, semi-professional and the professional camera bodies.
Consumer Camera Bodies – These are obviously the entry level bodies that are inexpensive. For most people, the image quality possible with these cameras are more than sufficient. I have seen National Geographic Photography competition winning images made with a Nikon D3200. Consider these, if budget is tight. The Nikon consumer bodies at the time of this posting are: D3200, D90, D5300 and D7100. The Canon consumer bodies at the time of this posting are: EOS Rebel T3i, T4i and T5i. These bodies may be purchased for about $ 1000 or less.
Semi-Professional Bodies – These cost more in the $ 1000 – $ 2000 range. What is the extra benefit for paying more money here? Basically, more buttons that perform functions quickly, rather than going into several layers of software menus. For example, in my Nikon D5100, I have to go into software through several layers of menus to change the ISO for a particular shot. In my Nikon D300, I am able to make that change using a dedicated ISO button. It is simply quicker and more efficient to change settings using the semi-professional bodies compared to the consumer bodies. These bodies also offer a larger number of focus areas for your frame. For example, my Nikon D5100 offers only nine points on the screen that can be used to focus the scene, while the Nikon D300 offers me 51 focus points. Can I live with my D5100 and still get the same kind of quality images that I make with my D300? Absolutely, no question about it. Is it a little easier to work in the field with a Nikon D300? Absolutely, without a doubt. Once I am used to a semi-pro body, I find it hard to operate a consumer body that has most functions hidden several layers within the software menu, interfaced through the LCD screen. The semi-professional bodies in the Nikon line at the time of this posting are: D300S and D610. The semi-professional bodies in the Canon line at the time of this posting are: EOS 60D, EOS 60Da and EOS 70D. If you are serious, consider one of these bodies – you can gradually pick up the use of the buttons and features offered, but beware, once you get used to using one of these bodies, it is pretty hard to go back to a consumer body. Again, it is the convenience offered by the various buttons and quick adjustments possible that you are paying for. Not necessarily for image quality. In addition to these qualities, most of these semi-pro bodies come with an all metal construction that results in rugged reliability in the field. I am simplifying here, there are a few other marginal benefits to these semi-pro bodies, but don’t want to get too complicated here.
Professional bodies – these are the top of the line bodies that are impervious to dust, rain and snow. In addition, these bodies come fitted with the highest quality lowest noise sensors and have very high frames per second continuous shooting rates. These bodies are nicely suited for wildlife, sports and night photography. For example, my Nikon D300 body can only go up to ISO 6400, but a Nikon D4 can be extended to ISO 204,800. The professional bodies in the Nikon line are: Nikon D800, D800E, D3x, D4 and Df. The professional bodies in the Canon line are: EOS 7D, 6D, 5D MIII and IDx.
Full frame sensor vs Crop factor sensor – A full frame sensor has the same size as the 35mm film, which was 36mm x 24mm. A crop-factor sensor is usually about 24mm x 16mm. For most beginners, you will not know the difference between these two sensors. Do not go out and buy a new camera just because you have a crop-factor sensor and the new one is full frame. The main limitation comes in wide angle landscape photography, wherein, a 17mm lens appears as 28mm or so, given that the sensor is cropping the image projected by the lens onto the backplane. For beginners, mastering the use of wide angle lenses for landscape photography, takes a while and for the most part, the full frame sensor will not be missed until an advanced skill level is reached. After practicing for eight years and after using my crop-factor camera, the Nikon D300, for five years, I am finally running into the crop-factor sensor limitations. In my widest lens, the 17-35mm, I am often shooting landscapes at 17mm and wish I could go wider. However, in the beginning, it was very difficult for me to compose at 17mm. I would never reach this lower limit and hence going to a full-frame sensor would not have helped me at all.
My recommended sweet spot camera for beginners: Nikon D7100 or Canon EOS 70D. Both these cameras have enough controls as dedicated buttons and yet, they may be purchased for around $ 1000. Once you have used one of these bodies diligently for a few years, you will be able to decide whether to upgrade to a higher level body or not.
CAUTION 1: If you already have a camera body today, please do not go out and buy a new camera based on reading this post. Just use the camera you already own, to its best. Then, have a very clear-cut reason to upgrade. “A new camera is just released. I simply need to buy it” – does not cut it. For example, my position is as follows – “I have used my Nikon D300 camera for five years now. I have made nearly 100,000 images using it. I continue to use it today, but I am limited. I love making night photographs in the street, hand-held. My ISO 6400 is very noisy and many times, it is not sufficient. I need the high ISO capability of a D4. Furthermore, as a landscape photographer, I am constantly running into the limit of 17mm on my widest lens and unable to go wider. I know I can competently use a wider angle than 17mm on my crop-factor lens, and therefore using the same lens on a new D4 with the full frame sensor would do me good. I am an avid wildlife photographer and could use the higher frames per second offered by the D4. Plus the D4 has a built-in vertical grip that will be ergonomically better for my shoulder.” With these reasons, I can justify my next camera purchase, the Nikon D4. However, I have not pulled the trigger yet, because this camera costs $ 6000. In digital photography, you have to be careful on how much you spend!
CAUTION 2: Megapixels is not important – this is the first thing people look at when trying to decide on a camera body. Unless you are a professional fine-art photographer, making poster size prints all the time, megapixels is not important. 99% of the photographers that I have talked to, simply post their images online or enjoy the images on their computer screens. A majority of them have never printed images beyond 8×10. At 300 dpi, an 8×10 image would need 2400×3000 pixels, which is 7.2 megapixels. That is it. I don’t know of one camera that produces an image less then 7.2 megapixels. If you are like most people, enjoying your images on your computer screen or posting online, you will not need more than 2 or 3 megapixels. So, going out of your way to buy a Nikon D800 camera capable of 36 megapixels is sheer waste of money. The only reason you should consider these high megapixel cameras, is if you are a fine art gallery photographer, making a living by selling 24×36 or larger prints.
I am sure you have come across people, taking for ever to make the jump into DSLR photography, because they are still trying to determine which camera to buy. If they are beginners and could use some simple direction, please send them a link to this post.
This post is meant to help beginners get started with night photography. Five different techniques are described and examples presented.
Feel free to leave a comment. If you like this post and benefited by it, please forward it to a friend who may benefit from it as well. Thank you and I shall see you again soon.
Photography is commonly thought of the way to make an image of something seen by the eyes. This is commonly true, of course. However, photography is also capable of capturing images, not exactly visible to the eye. In this post, I shall talk about six of them. I call this post “6 Ways To Photograph The Invisible”. By “invisible”, I mean that which cannot be seen exactly as depicted in the photograph. Let’s begin.
1. ADJUSTING FOCAL LENGTH DURING A SLOW EXPOSURE
Consider this image I made at an apparel store, when my family was trying on clothes.
This image was created by using a slow shutter speed and zooming in (changing the focal length), during the exposure. The metadata for this image is the following: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f10, 1/5 s, Hand-held, zooming the focal length constantly during the exposure.
While this photograph is interesting (at least to me), can you really see something like this with your eyes? Therefore, I consider this to be the first way to photograph the invisible.
2. MOVING THE CAMERA DURING A SLOW EXPOSURE
Now, consider this image.
To make this photograph, I was sitting comfortably and legally in the passenger seat of a moving car, while a good friend drove the car. The tripod was setup inside the car with the tripod/ball-head sticking out from the sunroof. An electronic shutter release cable reached me comfortably. Before starting the drive, I positioned the camera to look straight ahead, composing carefully to avoid the hood of the car, while at the same time pointing downwards, just enough to achieve the right balance between the ground, horizon and the sky. After the drive began, I clicked over a thousand shots in that drive, to find a few keepers eventually. The metadata for this shot is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 18-55mm f3.5-5.6 lens, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f25, 1/8 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ballhead, Nikon electronic shutter release cable.
Such a scene is never visible to our naked eyes and therefore, I consider this to be my second way to photograph the invisible.
3. ALLOWING THE SUBJECT TO MOVE DURING A SLOW EXPOSURE
Consider this image of an Anise Swallowtail Butterfly.
I shot using my telephoto lens and adjusted the shutter speed to be slow enough to allow the movement of the wings to be captured. The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Nikon 2x Teleconverter, 400mm, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f11, 1/80 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head. In this case, it is also important to note that although the wings are not sharp indicating a sense of movement, the eyes are still sharp. An entirely blurred butterfly will not cut it. The sharp eyes allow you to connect with it, while the blurry wings indicate motion.
Since our eyes and memory do not have the ability to retain the past and combine it with the present, visually, one cannot see what this image has captured. To me, this is the third way of photographing the invisible.
4. USING VERY HIGH SHUTTER SPEED DURING FAST ACTION
While we have so far seen how a slow shutter speed creates images not usually seen by the naked eye, a very high shutter speed can create equally interesting images that our eyes cannot see.
Take for example, this image of a snowy egret splashing water to catch its prey. The high shutter speed has frozen the water in air.
The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Nikon 2x teleconverter, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f5.6, 1/800 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head.
Our eyes are incapable of freezing visual information that happened in a very short span of time such as 1/800 s. Therefore, this is my fourth way of photographing the invisible.
Here is another image of a boy splashing water in the pool. This cannot be seen by the human eye and yet can be captured by the camera.
The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 50mm f1.4 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f5.6, 1/160 s, Hand-held.
5. LONG EXPOSURE OF TRAFFIC TRAIL LIGHTS AT NIGHT
Traffic trail lights at night is quintessential image-making demonstrating the capture of that which cannot be seen. Consider this Las Vegas Image. The long exposure enables capture of the bright traffic lights (without exposing for the significantly darker vehicles themselves).
The metadata for this image is: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, ISO 200, Aperture priority, f22, 14 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable (several exposures stacked together in Photoshop).
This is my fifth way to photograph the invisible.
Yet another traffic trail image of a local street near my home in San Jose, CA.
The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f16, 15 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable (several exposures stacked together in Photoshop).
6. FINE APERTURE EXPOSURE OF NIGHT LIGHTS
Consider this image of Austin Downtown at Night.
The most prominent foreground of this image is the star pattern from the nearest street light. Can you see a star pattern when you look at street lights with your naked eye? Of course, not. This is simply an optical phenomenon manifested in lenses. If your aperture is f22, point light sources convert themselves into stars. No, a star filter is not essential to get this effect (I have never used a star filter). The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, Manual exposure mode, f22, Several exposures (1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 15s, 30s, 1min, 2 min) composited using the HDR technique, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable.
This is my sixth way to photograph the invisible.
ABOUT ME – Hello, I am Satish Menon, founder of http://pixgaga.com. Visit my website to learn more about me, see my image gallery or to listen to my student testimonials.
MY REQUEST TO YOU – If you have enjoyed reading this post and if this has perhaps triggered an expansion of your photographic vision, please forward this post to a photographer friend. Also, if you practice other ways in which you photograph the invisible, please reply and share it here. Lastly, if you are interested to receive digital photography tips from me on a regular basis, register at my website at: http://www.pixgaga.com/users/new. I do conduct digital photography webinars (free), seminars and workshops, announced exclusively to my mailing list.
When I first learnt about DSLR photography, I was told that the hardest lens to master how to use is the wide angle lens. I did not understand why. Now I know. A wide angle lens similar to my 17-35mm lens is one that makes the nearer objects much larger than our eyes see them, and the far off objects are smaller than what our eyes see them. As a result, even a slight shift in the camera position will result in major differences in the composition. Once you have found a suitable background for your image, small changes in the camera position will not impact the background much, but the objects that are very near the camera (the foreground), change massively in your image. If your landscape has a foreground, controlling it well is the key to good landscapes.
As soon as I got off my car during my lunch hour today, the top image is what I saw. I wanted to place the antique farm equipment as foreground, while placing the mustard field as my middle-ground and the distant trees/hills as the background. Before I even mounted my camera onto my tripod, I gauged the composition hand-held and once I felt satisfied with it, pulled out my tripod and adjusted it several times, until I was fully satisfied. In the end, I fired several bracketed exposures, that yielded the final HDR image shown at the bottom.
When you find a great middle-ground and background, spend time moving around to adjust your foreground, until you are very sure of your composition.
Many things came together that resulted in this image.
Making this shot was an interesting experience. When I was driving on this road, this composition occurred to me. Stopped the car off the road and walked into the middle of the road to visualize some possibilities. I tried several heights of the tripod – flat on the ground, at 1 feet height, 3 feet height and my eye level. At each tripod height, I tried compositional variations and exposure variations. Finally, this is the composition I selected. The tripod is about 1 feet high (I think!). To get end-to-end sharpness, I adjusted the aperture to f22. Since this is a wide angle image, my 17-35mm f2.8 lens was used. Of course, I used a remote release cable to open the shutter. Gitzo 1340 tripod and Kirk BH-1 ball head provided the stability I needed. My wife was extremely helpful – she stood by the side of the road and alerted me whenever a vehicle was approaching on the road. All my attention was on the photographic technique and composition – she made sure that I did not get run over by a car. Every time a vehicle approached, I lifted my tripod/camera and walked out of the road, then tried again.
There are a few options to make high magnification images of small things. Firstly, you may get yourself a dedicated macro lens. I would highly recommend the 200mm f4 macro lens. The 200mm focal length allows for sufficient working distance from the insects. A 100mm focal length option is much cheaper, but you have to get very close to the insects and they will fly away before you get your shot. The other option, if you already have the 70-200mm f2.8 lens is to add a Canon 500D diopter to it, to make it focus close. This is what I do. The third alternative is to add an extension tube (available from Kenko) to the 70-200mm f2.8 option and thereby reduce the minimum focusing distance to enable macro photography. Once you get the right lens, your next challenge is to hand-hold and shoot these insects. At macro focusing distances, you hardly have any depth of field. Shooting at f22 is a necessity to get the whole insect in sharp focus. This challenges the shutter speed. You deal with it by setting the shutter speed to 1/250 s manually and using an external speedlight to provide the lighting. This is how I photographed the Syrphid fly shown here.
Although it requires special skills, once mastered macro photography can be very joyful.
I will be covering the macro technique in detail in the “Advanced DSLR Seminar” coming up.