Category Archives: Exposure

Correcting White Balance in Digital Images using expodisc 2.0

Of all the autoexposure features available in modern DSLRs, the one that is most frustrating for me is the Auto-WB.  For years, I set the white balance to Auto-WB, hoping to be fine with the color in my digital images.  Again, for all those years, my mind wasn’t tuned to deciphering the color issues.  Recently, I noticed that some of my landscape shots looked too blue to me.  Talking to a former photography student and now a good photographer himself, Sanjiv Kapoor, I learned how to adjust the color temperature and the tint sliders in Lightroom to get the right colors.  Furthermore, I learned the idea of using a WB filter to reduce the guesswork involved in this exercise.  Here’s how.

This is my process for RAW shooting.  I attach an expodisc 2.0 WB filter to the front of the lens, in the light condition of the main shot, to make a reference image at metered exposure.  It produces a perfect (18%) neutral gray image.

Neutral Gray Image

Neutral Gray Image made with a WB filter in the same light as the image subject.  Caveat – if you are viewing this post in a monitor not correctly color calibrated, you are not seeing neutral gray.

Once opened in Lightroom, the default may not open up as neutral gray.  It will open up with a default color temperature and tint, that may not be the real color temperature/tint.  Drop the eyedropper from the Lightroom Develop Module into this image.  That neutralizes any color cast in this reference and gives you the right white balance.  Just apply the same color temperature and tint to the desired image.  It is quite easy to do this in Lightroom, by simply “sync”ing the develop settings.  In fact, I spend my time long enough on this reference (see the dust spot in it – I correct that, plus apply the lens profile etc), before “syncing” it to all the frames shot in the same light.

Here’s an example.  As opened in Lightroom, the top image shown here is how it looked.

Image as seen after Lightroom opened RAW file

How this image looked when RAW file was opened up as default in Lightroom. Too blue and not representing what was seen.

This is too blue and did not represent what was seen.  The color temperature was 5750 with a tint of -4.  The neutral gray reference shot shown earlier had a color temperature of 8800 with a tint of -5.  Upon correcting this image to that, the resulting final image is shown below.

Image with corrected white balance

Image with corrected white balance, with the aid of the expodisc 2.0

This represents what was seen.

Now that I have figured this out, and now that I have tuned my mind to seeing colors a bit better, I find all kinds of color errors all over my portfolio from years of work!!  :-)  As I find time, I will keep correcting the color of my past photographs, but I don’t have the reference shots to help me.

NOTE: The user’s manual for expodisc 2.0 talks about a different way to use it.  Take a reference shot into the camera, by using a setting for white balance reference shot.  Then the following images will be rendered correctly.  In my honest opinion, this method is appropriate for jpg shooters.  The method I outlined here is more suited for RAW shooters.

Red Streak Noise in Long Exposure Night Shots Solved

Last Saturday, I was photographing along the California Hwy 1 coastline at night.  It was pretty dark requiring long exposures.  With that came a noise problem – a red streak in the image.  See below.

Long Exposure Night Shot of Sea Stack showing red streak noise

Long Exposure Night Shot of Sea Stack along California Hwy 1 Coast. See the two red streaks in the lower one-thirds of the image.

This was an eight minute exposure.  Shot at f22, ISO100.  Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens and Nikon D4S body.  Fortunately, I had another two minute exposure of the same composition, made when there was a bit more light that would work for me as a keeper.  So, I had not lost the shot.  But, it was disconcerting to realize that I was limited to two minute exposures with this lens for night shots.

First, I wanted to ascertain that the red streak noise was repeatable.  I ran a series of tests on long night exposures yesterday, only to realize that with this lens, it was very repeatable as long as the scene was pretty dark and my exposure was greater than 2 minutes @ ISO100.  I also verified other ISOs and found that the red streak noise found during 4 minutes @ ISO100 and that found during 1 minute @ ISO400 were about the same.  There was no escaping this.  If I needed to shoot in very dark conditions – I will not be able to get away with shorter exposures, using ISO to compensate.  This was depressing …

Next, I attempted to see if “long exposure noise reduction” would compensate for this issue.  After all, the long exposure noise reduction works by making a dark exposure with identical parameters, with the shutter closed.  The idea is that the noise on the sensor would be same, which is later subtracted from the main image, thus reducing or eliminating to a great extent the noise resulting from long exposure.  The results of these tests were disappointing as well.  The noise was the same in the RAW files, but slightly reduced in the in-camera JPGs.  I shoot 100% RAW and would not be happy switching to JPG for the slight reduction in the red streak noise.  I needed to solve it fully.

As I drove around and lived my life today, it occurred to me that I should perhaps try to apply the long exposure noise reduction idea manually.  At the next opportunity I got, I put the lens cap on the same lens and made an eight minute exposure at f22 and ISO100.  The resulting dark exposure with red streak noise is shown below.

Dark exposure with lens cap on, recreating the red streak noise alone.

Dark exposure with lens cap on, recreating the red streak noise alone.

Now, I had to figure out a way to subtract the red streak noise seen in this image, from the original image.  Since I have been stacking images in Photoshop for years, this was easy for me to figure out.  Here is the procedure:

1. Load both images from LR into PS as layers.

2. Right-click the layers in PS and “Convert to Smart Object”.

3. Pull-down “Layer” > “Smart Objects” > “Stack Mode” > Range.

Stacking using “Range” makes sense, because it is essentially subtracting the maximum signal from the minimum signal and providing the difference.  Since the second image (containing only the red streak noise) has black in the rest of the image, only the red streak noise will get eliminated.

I tried this procedure and “bingo”, it worked.  The red streak noise was eliminated and there was no loss to the image quality.  All details of the underlying image came alive just as I had imagined.  The resulting red streak noise free image is shown below.

Red streak noise has now been eliminated in this image, using the procedure mentioned in this post.

Red streak noise has now been eliminated in this image, using the procedure mentioned in this post.

Conclusion – While I have not solved how to prevent the red streak noise in the first place, I have a pretty good procedure to deal with it in post.  Just take another image with the same exposure parameters as the real image, with the lens cap “on” this time.  This may be done several days later and in conditions different from the shoot.  Then, subtract the latter from the former using the PS procedure just outlined.

PS.  I have observed this red streak noise in my Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 VR lens.  Others have reported it on the Nikkor 16-35mm f4 lens.  I checked my 16-35mm f4 lens and do not see this noise in that one.

If you have seen this type of red streak noise during long night exposures, please try this procedure and let me know if it worked for you.  I would appreciate it, if you could post your success story as a comment here.  Thank you for your attention.

Working a composition

When I come across something interesting to photograph, I do not click one image of an obvious composition and walk away.  I start with the obvious compositions, but I keep refining and altering my position, until I have attempted a lot of variations.  Very often, when I review my work later in Lightroom, I find that my later refinements bring out the fine keepers.

I photographed a waterfall along Fern Creek in Muir Woods, CA, last week.  Let me illustrate how I worked the composition in that case.

The following image is the first image I made when I saw the waterfalls.

Waterfall, Fern Creek, Muir Woods, CA, USA

The first image made of the waterfalls

This first image has a number of branches coming in the way of the view of the falls.  Clearly, I don’t like it and try another shot by moving a bit.  The next image shown here removes a bunch of the blocks and the view is somewhat clear.  However, one fern leaf snuck into the lower end of the image.  It is important to understand that I was viewing through the viewfinder on my f2.8 lens, but I was shooting f22.  This causes this fern leaf to be almost invisible in the viewfinder, due to shallow depth of field, but it shows up in the f22 image.  Plus there is a brown twig in the lower left of the image.  I see all this in my LCD panel and decide to try again.

Waterfall, Fern Creek, Muir Woods, CA, USA

The next image made

I moved and made the following image, in an attempt to remove distracting blocks to the view of the falls.  The following image has problems though.  Some other brown dried leaf has now snuck in, plus the brown twig on the left is still there.

Waterfall, Fern Creek, Muir Woods, CA, USA

The next image made

After some more adjustments to my tripod position, I made the following image.  This composition is almost OK, but, during the 30 second long exposure, I got distracted talking to my kids in the nearby trail and accidentally touched/hit the tripod during the exposure.  Observing the top edge of the rock, just after the falls, I realize that it is not exactly sharp, due to the accidental hit to the tripod during the exposure.

The next image made

I try again, this time getting a sharp image, with minimum distractions.

Waterfall, Fern Creek, Muir Woods, CA, USA

The next image made

Taking one of the final frames during these series, as my base, I decided to use Lightroom to crop it and develop further.  FInally, I removed some branches and twigs to clean it up further.  The final result is as shown below.

Waterfall, Fern Creek, Muir Woods, CA, USA

My final finished image

Many beginners ask me what I mean, when I say “work the composition more”.  I decided to illustrate using this example.

Let me know if you have any feedback on this post.

Surf along Pacific Grove in California

I visited the coast along Pacific Grove one Sunday morning a couple of weeks back.  It was a cloudy day with a slight drizzle.  I wanted to make photographs anyway.  Usually, I look for landscapes with my wide angle lens, composing near-far images.  Unfortunately, I was just beginning to use my Nikon D700, for which the required tripod L-plate was back-ordered.  I was left with only one choice, my 70-200 telephoto (this lens is mounted on the tripod and the camera hangs off of it).  It was an interesting constraint to work with.  After walking around for a while, I figured out a spot from which I could see the surf hitting the rocks along the coast forming interesting patterns as the water washed over the rocks.  I decided to photograph these patterns.  I shot about 200 frames that morning, each one attempting to time the flow of the water just when interesting patterns occurred.  Furthermore, I decided to make long exposures to capture the sense of movement.  To achieve this, I set the ISO to 200 (the native ISO of my Nikon D700), the aperture to f22 (to get the longest shutter speed possible) and let the camera operate in aperture priority mode.  The shutter speeds as determined by my camera ranged from 1/6 s to 1/13 s during my whole shoot.  The 70-200mm f2.8 lens was mounted on my RRS BH-55 Ballhead on my Gitzo 1340 Tripod.  Furthermore, I had my GPS-1A unit on to tag the GPS co-ordinates to my images and I was triggering using a cable release.  Here are a few images from the session, post processed using Lightroom 5 and Google’s Silver Efex Pro 2.

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA


Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA

Surf, Pacific Grove, CA, USA


Discovering unimaginably great photographic compositions

Great photographs are often not imagined that way.  Many advanced amateur photographers I know, step out into location, take an image with the most obvious composition and then walk away with the idea that they are done.  I did this for many years, but I no longer treat my photography that way.  I start with the most obvious compositions and then I stay and I stay and I stay.  I try another composition and yet another composition and keep on going until either physical exhaustion or mental exhaustion or my next chore deadline hits me.  Often, I stay at a location and make hundreds of images.  My best compositions then turn out to be those that are closer to the frame 100 mark and almost never near the frame 1.  The creative juices start flowing after the most obvious compositions are out of the way.  Your brain starts thinking out of the box, after the “in-the-box” thinking is exhausted.  This is in fact, a great way to train your composition skills.  Lock yourself into your closet and force yourself into making 100 different compositions.  Freeman Patterson taught me this through one of his books.  Later, when I attended a seminar by John Shaw, he told us the same thing.  Ever since, I have tried it very often and every time, I come up with some cool images.

Let me illustrate using one example.  This happened two weeks ago.  I was travelling with a fellow photographer in his car.  Fortunately for me, he was driving and we had an hour to drive before our night photo shoot in San Francisco.  He happened to tell me about his new Fuji X100S camera in his glove compartment.  I found myself pulling it out and making hand-held shots.  I made 300 frames that night and will show you a sample of the progression from trash to good (atleast for my eyes).

I started with images like this one.

One of the first images I made in a series of 300. Nothing spectacular. No big deal. But, this is just a beginning.

The first images made in a series will not be necessarily spectacular.  But, it is important to get going.

After a few frames, this is yet another frame that was made.

This image was made shortly after the car started moving. Nothing spectacular here either. But, some ideas are developing. The streaks due to long exposure is triggering a thought …

I want to extend the idea of making light streaks with long exposures.  So, I try some more shots.

The streaks are more prominent in this shot. This is validating that some cool images are possible. Need to try variations, with the same idea.

OK, at this point, I am thinking, “what else I can do with this idea?”  And then, I make an image like this.

Extending the idea of brandishing my camera during a long exposure. Still not a killer keeper, but I want to keep going.

By this time, I want to keep going with the idea further.  Then, after a few frames, I made this image.

Continuing on the streaks during long exposure idea.

Now, the idea of creating an image with streaks during a long exposure, while brandishing my camera, is very encouraging.  This is still not a keeper image for me, but it is getting close.  I want to keep going.

This is getting a lot closer to a clear keeper. In fact, with a crop to remove the emptiness of the bottom most area and the dark top right area, this is indeed a keeper. Very encouraging.

With the right crop, this is a nice keeper.  Let me keep going.

Ooooh! My first keeper, for my eyes. Made by brandishing my camera in circular movement plus bottom left to top right.

By this time, I have completed shooting over 200 frames.  From now on, I went on shooting solid keepers.  Here are some examples.

One of the keeper images, from a series of 300 shot in a one hour car ride. Never imagined this composition, before I started the car ride.

One of the keepers from the series of 300 images made in a one-hour car ride. This composition could not have been imagined prior to the ride.

My favorite so far, from the whole series. To my eyes, this is a lovely composition.

To summarize, you should practice your photographic composition often.  How about 100 images a day?  If not, atleast do 500 images a week.  In any one practice session, include atleast 100 images of a simple subject.  Your composition skills will shoot through the roof, if practiced consistently.  This is more useful than reading tens of books on composition.

If you found this article useful, let me know.  Email me at  Feel free to forward it, comment on it, and above all please use it.

Good luck with your photographic composition.










7 Lessons from a Waterfall Image

Fall leaves and small waterfall, Uvas Canyon, Morgan Hill, CA, USA

Fall leaves and small waterfall, Uvas Canyon, Morgan Hill, CA, USA

  1. In overcast conditions, look for colorful subjects (flowers, foliage etc) to make intimate landscapes.  Given the time of the year (mid-Nov), photographing fall leaves was a no-brainer for me.
  2. If possible, emphasize something in the foreground, against the background subject.  In this case, I found this colorful leaf for the foreground to anchor the shot of a background waterfall and more leaves.
  3. Photograph extensive depth images with a wide angle lens.  I used my 17-35mm f2.8.
  4. Use f22, if there is a foreground object very close to the lens, along with background that is far away.  This ensured front to back sharpness due to extensive depth of field.  My lens was about 9 inches away from the foreground leaf.
  5. Use your camera’s native ISO to keep the noise to the minimum.  I used ISO 200, native to my Nikon D300.
  6. Use a tripod.  The shutter speed for this shot was 30 s.  I could not have done it hand-held.  I used my light GK1580TQR5 tripod, coupled with my Kirk BH-1 Ball head.  This tripod is light enough and small enough to actually fit inside my camera backpack.  At the same time, I was not impressed by the ball-head that came standard with this tripod.  I therefore took it out and fitted my Kirk BH-1 ball-head to it.  I now have a fine light tripod, with an extraordinary ball-head.  This tripod provides the stability to shoot long exposures.  This ball-head provides ability to quickly and easily fine-tune my composition, once the tripod is setup.
  7. Do not trigger with your finger.  Use an electronic cable release.  I used one for this shot, to eliminate any camera shake, resulting in a sharp image.

Staged Outdoor Baby Portraits

This post is about photographing babies in a staged outdoor setting.  If you are looking for a procedure to make candid unplanned photographs, please skip this post.  While there are many ways to photograph babies in an outdoor setting, this is my favorite method.

  1. Pick the date of the shoot and figure out the sunset time for that date, using any one of the sunset calendars available online.
  2. Find a good park with good foliage near your home.
  3. On the day of the shoot, in addition to the baby, carry two comforters.
  4. Arrive at the location of the shoot 60-90 minutes before sunset.  The light gets sweeter closer to the sunset.  Light in the middle of the day is not suitable for outdoor portraits.
  5. Setup one comforter for the baby and the other one for the photographer, such that when the photographer is shooting the photographs, the baby is getting side-lighting.  The sun should be on the baby’s left or right, not front/back.  Side-lighting provides a lot of depth to the image.  Front lighting is flat and not recommended, if you can avoid it.  Backlighting, although interesting, is not widely appreciated for outdoor portraits.  Furthermore, set the two comforters such that the background is far away from the baby.  Instead of setting the baby near a background wall or a bunch of background trees, these backgrounds should be far away.  In the park, the photographer should be nearest to the border and the baby should be inside the park, such that the other end of the park is far away.  This will allow you to blur out the background, intensifying the attention of the viewer on the baby.
  6. On the photographer’s comforter, place the tripod, as low to the ground as possible.  This will enable you to shoot from the child’s eye-level.  Do not shoot portraits from up looking down.  It is best to shoot portraits from the eye-level of the subject.
  7. Mount a long lens on the tripod.  My favorite lens is the 70-200mm f2.8 lens.  This lens sits on the tripod.  The camera body hangs on the lens.  A telephoto blurs out the background much more than a normal or wide angle lens.  In addition, a telephoto lens does not have the distortion so common in the wide angle lenses.  Finally, the coverage provided by telephoto lens is most appropriate for portraits.
  8. Mount the camera on it.  I use a Nikon D300.  Mount an external flash on the camera. The on-camera flashes are not good enough.  I use the SB-800 speedlight.
  9. Set the camera to aperture priority exposure mode.  Set the aperture to f2.8 or f4.  This will provide the shallow depth of field to blur out the background.
  10. Choose to shoot with a single focus sensor turned on.  Furthermore, using the jockey at the back of the camera, get comfortable in moving that sensor around as necessary.
  11. Turn on the external speedlight in TTL (BL) mode (Nikon) or eTTL mode (Canon).  This will simply put out some fill light without overwhelming the subject with flash light.  Even if the ambient light is sufficient, this is necessary – it introduces a catch light in the eyes and provides some light to fill the dark shadows.
  12. Place baby on its comforter and let him/her play around.
  13. Start shooting pictures, with the focus sensor on the baby’s eyes.  Even if parts of the baby are not in focus due to shallow depth of field, it is extremely important for the eyes to be tack sharp and in focus.
  14. Keep shooting images, starting from about 30 minutes before sunset, all the way till the last light is all gone.  You should have several hundred frames done.
  15. Go home and pick your best.  Develop the image in Lightroom or similar software.

Thank you for your attention.  If you found this procedure to be useful or even if one aspect of this enhances your technique in any way, please let me know.  Feel free to forward this post to anyone that might benefit from it.

Thank you.

6 Ways To Photograph The Invisible

Photography is commonly thought of the way to make an image of something seen by the eyes.  This is commonly true, of course.  However, photography is also capable of capturing images, not exactly visible to the eye.  In this post, I shall talk about six of them.  I call this post “6 Ways To Photograph The Invisible”.  By “invisible”, I mean that which cannot be seen exactly as depicted in the photograph.  Let’s begin.


Consider this image I made at an apparel store, when my family was trying on clothes.

Apparel in Mall

Apparel in Mall

This image was created by using a slow shutter speed and zooming in (changing the focal length), during the exposure.  The metadata for this image is the following: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f10, 1/5 s, Hand-held, zooming the focal length constantly during the exposure.

While this photograph is interesting (at least to me), can you really see something like this with your eyes?  Therefore, I consider this to be the first way to photograph the invisible.


Now, consider this image.

Road seen from a moving car

Road seen from a moving car

To make this photograph, I was sitting comfortably and legally in the passenger seat of a moving car, while a good friend drove the car.  The tripod was setup inside the car with the tripod/ball-head sticking out from the sunroof.  An electronic shutter release cable reached me comfortably.  Before starting the drive, I positioned the camera to look straight ahead, composing carefully to avoid the hood of the car, while at the same time pointing downwards, just enough to achieve the right balance between the ground, horizon and the sky.  After the drive began, I clicked over a thousand shots in that drive, to find a few keepers eventually.  The metadata for this shot is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 18-55mm f3.5-5.6 lens, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f25, 1/8 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ballhead, Nikon electronic shutter release cable.

Such a scene is never visible to our naked eyes and therefore, I consider this to be my second way to photograph the invisible.


Consider this image of an Anise Swallowtail Butterfly.

Anise Swallowtail Butterfly

Anise Swallowtail Butterfly

I shot using my telephoto lens and adjusted the shutter speed to be slow enough to allow the movement of the wings to be captured.  The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Nikon 2x Teleconverter, 400mm, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f11, 1/80 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head.  In this case, it is also important to note that although the wings are not sharp indicating a sense of movement, the eyes are still sharp.  An entirely blurred butterfly will not cut it.  The sharp eyes allow you to connect with it, while the blurry wings indicate motion.

Since our eyes and memory do not have the ability to retain the past and combine it with the present, visually, one cannot see what this image has captured.  To me, this is the third way of photographing the invisible.


While we have so far seen how a slow shutter speed creates images not usually seen by the naked eye, a very high shutter speed can create equally interesting images that our eyes cannot see.

Take for example, this image of a snowy egret splashing water to catch its prey.  The high shutter speed has frozen the water in air.

Snowy Egret and frozen splash

Snowy Egret and frozen splash

The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Nikon 2x teleconverter, ISO 200, Aperture Priority, f5.6, 1/800 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head.

Our eyes are incapable of freezing visual information that happened in a very short span of time such as 1/800 s.  Therefore, this is my fourth way of photographing the invisible.

Here is another image of a boy splashing water in the pool.  This cannot be seen by the human eye and yet can be captured by the camera.

Boy splashing water in pool

Boy splashing water in pool

The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 50mm f1.4 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f5.6, 1/160 s, Hand-held.


Traffic trail lights at night is quintessential image-making demonstrating the capture of that which cannot be seen.  Consider this Las Vegas Image.  The long exposure enables capture of the bright traffic lights (without exposing for the significantly darker vehicles themselves).

Las Vegas at Night

Las Vegas at Night

The metadata for this image is: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, ISO 200, Aperture priority, f22, 14 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable (several exposures stacked together in Photoshop).

This is my fifth way to photograph the invisible.

Yet another traffic trail image of a local street near my home in San Jose, CA.

Traffic trails at night, San Jose, CA

Traffic trails at night, San Jose, CA

The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 70-200mm f2.8 lens, Aperture Priority, ISO 200, f16, 15 s, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable (several exposures stacked together in Photoshop).


Consider this image of Austin Downtown at Night.

Austin Downtown at Night

Austin Downtown at Night

The most prominent foreground of this image is the star pattern from the nearest street light.  Can you see a star pattern when you look at street lights with your naked eye?  Of course, not.  This is simply an optical phenomenon manifested in lenses.  If your aperture is f22, point light sources convert themselves into stars.  No, a star filter is not essential to get this effect (I have never used a star filter).  The metadata for this image is as follows: Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-35mm f2.8 lens, Manual exposure mode, f22, Several exposures (1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 15s, 30s, 1min, 2 min) composited using the HDR technique, Gitzo 1340 Tripod, Kirk BH-1 Ball-head, Nikon electronic shutter release cable.

This is my sixth way to photograph the invisible.

ABOUT ME – Hello, I am Satish Menon, founder of  Visit my website to learn more about me, see my image gallery or to listen to my student testimonials.

MY REQUEST TO YOU – If you have enjoyed reading this post and if this has perhaps triggered an expansion of your photographic vision, please forward this post to a photographer friend.  Also, if you practice other ways in which you photograph the invisible, please reply and share it here.  Lastly, if you are interested to receive digital photography tips from me on a regular basis, register at my website at:  I do conduct digital photography webinars (free), seminars and workshops, announced exclusively to my mailing list.